Elizabeth D. Chow Bryson
Immigration Lawyer


Independent immigrants are selected based upon a point system. Points are available for:

For independent workers whose occupation is not considered to be in demand by Canada Immigration, either a validated job offer or qualification under another category of immigration may be necessary.


Business immigrants include those applying in the entrepreneur, investor, self-employed and family business categories. They are assessed on the same point system but are given bonus points and are not subject to occupational demand requirements.

Entrepreneurs are persons intending to purchase, make a substantial investment in or establish, and actively manage, a business in Canada which creates or continues employment opportunities for one or more Canadians. The entrepreneur's financial resources and business acumen are examined. Applicants accepted as entrepreneurs are given immigrant visas which remain conditional for up to 2 years while the entrepreneur complies with the terms and conditions related to the entrepreneur's venture.

Investors must have a minimum net worth and invest a sum of money for a prescribed period of time in a government-approved project or syndicate designed for risk or venture capital. The minimums vary from province to province. In B.C., investors must be worth $500,000 and be prepared to lock-in an investment of $350,000 for 5 years. Investors do not need to actively manage their investments but must be able to establish that they have operated, controlled or directed successful business ventures in the past.

Self-Employed persons are those who have the intention and ability to buy or create a business in Canada employing at least that person. A plan detailing the proposed business has to be provided at the time the application is made. The business must make a significant contribution to the Canadian economy or to the cultural or artistic life of Canada.

Family Business applicants must be relatives of Canadian citizens or permanent residents of Canada. Canadian citizens or permanent residents who have successfully operated a family business for one year or more are allowed to hire from abroad to assist in the management or expansion of that business. The essential criterion in applications of this type is that the relative abroad is the logical choice to fill the position because of family trust.

Employment Authorizations

The basic rule is that temporary foreign workers (non-citizens or permanent residents) must obtain an employment authorization before commencing work in Canada. The Regulations to the Immigration Act outline certain individuals who are exempt from this requirement. Moreoever, there are categories of business visitors who are also exempt from the requirement to obtain job validation under the North America Free Trade Agreement or under the General Agreement on Trade in Services. For those who do not fall within an exemption, permission to import a foreign worker will be granted in cases either when employment opportunities for Canadian citizens or permanent residents are not adversely affected, where reciprocal employment opportunities for Canadians in other countries are created, or employment of the foreign worker will create significant employment or other opportunities for Canadian citizens or permanent residents.

Family Class

Any Canadian citizen or permanent resident aged 19 years or more is entitled to sponsor certain relatives.

In certain circumstances, children whom sponsors intend to adopt may apply as immigrants. Sponsors without other relatives in Canada are entitled to sponsor a relative abroad. Sponsors are required to provide Undertakings to support those they sponsor for up to 10 years. Financial ability to sponsor is required in most cases.

Convention Refugee

Convention refugees are persons with a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of:

In appropriate circumstances, refugee claims can be made by persons outside their country of nationality to visa officers at Canadian missions abroad. Relatives and other interested persons in Canada can sponsor overseas refugee claimants. Refugee claims can also be made at ports of entry to Canada or inland.
Options for unsuccessful refugee claimants may include applications to the Federal Court or under the Post Determination Refugee Claimants in Canada (PDRCC) class and Deferred Removal Orders Class (DROC).

Immigration Fees

The Canadian Government charges both Processing and Right of Landing fees for persons immigrating to Canada.

Processing fees

These fees depend on the type of application. For example, applicants in the independent category are charged $500 per applicant, whereas business applicants are charged $1,000.00 per applicant. Dependents 19 years or older are charged $500 each and dependents under 19 years of age are charged $100 each. The Processing fees are not refunded if the application is unsuccessful.

Right of Landing fee

In addition to the Processing fee, every applicant for permanent residence in Canada and each dependent 19 years or older is charged $975 as a Right of Landing fee. The Right of Landing fee is refunded if the application is unsuccessful.

Elizabeth D. Chow Bryson offers timely, professional service in all immigration and citizenship matters. Whether you reside inside or outside Canada, Elizabeth D. Chow Bryson can provide you with the advice and representation you need. We look forward to hearing from you.

Elizabeth D. Chow Bryson
Immigration Lawyer

Suite 1107, 808 Nelson Street
Box 12150
Vancouver, B.C., V6Z 2H2,

Tel: (604)688-3860 Fax:(604)688-3867



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